Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)

 

TEFL

APPROACH, METHOD, TECHNIQUE AND STRATEGY

 

APPROACH

o   A set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning, and teaching.

o   Theoretically well-informed positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language of learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.

 

 

METHOD

o   Described as an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach.

o   A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives.

o   Tend to be concerned primarily with  teacher and student roles and behaviours and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials.

o   An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural.

 

TECHNIQUE

o   Implementational – that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective.

o   Must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.

 

STRATEGY

o     Specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular end, or planned design for controlling and manipulating certain information.

 

METHODOLOGY

o   Pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical under-pinnings and related research)

o   How to teach.

 

 

 

GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM)

 

o   What are the goals of teachers who use the GTM?

 

§  A fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language.

 

o   What is the rule of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

§ The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The students do as she says so  they can learn what she knows.

 

o   What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

§  Students are taught to translate from one language to another.

§  Students study grammar deductively.

 

o   What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?

§  Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students.

§  There is little student initiation and little student-student interaction.

 

o   What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

§  Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized.

§  Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on.

§  There is much less attention given to speaking and listening.

§  Pronunciation receives little, if any, attention.

 

o   What is the role of the students’ native language?

§  The meaning of the target language is made clear by translating  it into the students’ native language.

§  The language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language.

 

o   How is the evaluation accomplished?

§  Written  tests in which  students are asked to translate from their native language to the target language or vice versa are often used.

 

o   How does the teacher respond to student errors?

§  Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important.

§  If students make errors or do not know an answer, the teacher supplies them with the correct answer.

 


The Direct Method

 

o   Since the Grammar-Translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively, the Direct Method became popular.

o   The basic rule of Direct Method is that No translation is allowed.

o   Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids. (Diller 1978)

o   Known words could be used to teach new vocabulary, using mime, demonstration, and pictures.

 

The Principles and Procedures in DM (Jack C. Richards, 1992:9-10)

1.       Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.

2.       Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.

3.       Oral communication skills were built up in carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.

4.       Grammar was taught inductively.

5.       New teaching points were introduced orally.

6.       Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.

7.       Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.

8.       Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.

 

     The Guidelines for Teaching Oral Language in DM (Richards, 1992: 10)

> Never translate                          ---->     demonstrate

> Never explain                            ----> act

> Never make a speech                 ----> ask questions

> Never imitate mistake                ----> correct

> Never speak with single words   ---->    use sentences

> Never speak too much               ---->      make students speak  much

> Never use the book                    ---->      use lesson plan

> Never go too fast                     ---->       keep the pace of the students

> Never speak too slowly            ---->       speak normally

> Never speak too quickly          ---->       speak naturally

> Never speak too loudly            ---->   speak naturally

> Never be impatient                  ---->    take it easy

 

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

o   What are the goal of teachers who use the Direct Method?

§  Teachers who use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language.

§  Students should learn to think in the target language.

o   What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

§  The teacher and the students are more like partners in the teaching/learning

o   What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

§  Teachers who use the DM believe students need to associate meaning and the target language directly.

§  He demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomimes;

§  He never translate it into students’ native language.

§  The syllabus used in DM is based upon situations.

§  Grammar is taught inductively by presenting the examples and students figure out the rule to generalize from the examples.

§  An explicit grammar rule may never be given.

§  Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.

o   What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?

§  The interaction goes both ways, from teacher to student  and from student to teacher.

o   How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?

§  Language is primarily spoken, not written.

§  Students study common everyday  speech in the target language.

§  They study culture of the history of the people  so speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language  is spoken.

o   What areas of language  are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

§  Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.

§  Oral communication  is seen as basic.

§  Reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first.

§  Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course.

o   What is the role of the students’ native language?

§  The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.

o   How is evaluation accomplished?

§  Students are asked to use the language.

§  Students are asked to do so using both oral and written skills.

o   How does the teacher respond to student errors?

§  The teacher tries to get students to self-correct whenever possible.

 

The Audiolingual Method (ALM)

 

Learning Principles of ALM (Jack C. Richards, 1992:51)

1.       Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit formation.

2.       Language skills are learned more effectively if the items to be learned in the target language are  presented  in spoken form before  they are seen in written form.

3.       Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis. Explanations of rules are therefore not given until students have  practiced a patterned in a variety of contexts and are thought to have acquired  a perception of the analogies involved.

4.       The meanings that the words of a language have for the native speaker can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation. 

 

The use of drills and pattern practice in ALM (Brooks, 1964:156-61, in  Richards, 1992:54)

 

1. Repetition .

     - This is the seventh month. – This is the seventh month.

     - I used to know him years ago .  – I used to know him years ago .

 

2. Inflection

     - I bought the ticket.   – I bought the tickets .

     - He bought the candy.   -  She bought the candy

 

3. Replacement

     - He bought this house cheap.  – He bought it cheap.

     - Helen left early  - She left early.

 

 

 

4. Restatement.

     - Tell him to wait for you.  – Wait for me.

     - Ask her how old she is.  – How old are you?

 

5. Completion.

     - I’ll go my way and you go …  - I’ll go my way and you go yours .

     - We all have … own troubles.  – We all have ou r own troubles.

 

6. Transposition .

     - I’m hungry. (so).  – So am I.

     - I’ll never do it again. (neither).  – Neither will I.

 

7. Expansion.

     - I know him. (hardly). – I hardly know him.

     - I know him. (well).  – I know him well .

 

8. Contraction .

     - Put your hand on the table .  – Put your hand there.

     - They believe that the earth is flat .  – They believe it.

 

9. Transformation .

     - He knows my address.

     - He doesn’t know my address.

     - Does he know my address.

     - He used to know my address.

 

10. Integration.

     - They must be honest. This is important.  – it is important they must be honest.

     - I know that man. He is looking for you.  – I know the man who is looking for you.

 

 

11. Rejoinder.

     Be polite.

     - Thank you.  – You’re welcome.

     - May I take one?  - Certainly.

 

    Answer the question.

     - What is your name?  - My name is Smith.

     - Where did it happen?  - In the middle of the street.

 

      Agree.

     - He’s following us.  – I think you’re right.

     - This is good coffee.  – It’s very good.

 

12. Restoration.

     - student/waiting/bus  - The students are waiting for the bus.

     - boys/build/house/tree  - The boys built a house in a tree.

 

 

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

 

o   What are the goals of teachers who use the ALM?

§  Teachers want their students to be able use the target language communicatively by forming new habits and overcoming the old habits of their native language.

 

o   What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

§  The teacher is responsible for providing the students with a good model for imitation.

§  Students are imitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes she  supplies of model speakers.

 

o   What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

§  New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogs.

§  The dialogs are learned through imitation and repetition.

§  Drills are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialog.

§  Grammar is induced from the examples given; explicit grammar rules are not provided.

 

o   What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?

§  There is student-to-student interaction in chain drills or when students take different roles in dialogs.

§  The interaction is teacher directed, most of the interaction is between teacher and students and is initiated by the teacher.

 

o   How is the language viewed? How is the culture viewed?

§  Everyday speech is emphasized in the ALM.

§  Culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.

 

o   What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

§  Vocabulary  is   kept to a minimum while the students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns.

§  The natural order of skills presentation is adhered  to: listening, speaking, reading, and writing

§  The oral/aural skills receive most of the attention.

§  Pronunciation is taught from the beginning.

 

o   What is the role of the students’ native language?

§  The habits of the students’ native  language are thought to interfere with the students’ attempts to master the target language.

§  The target language is used in the classroom, not the native language.

§  A contrastive analysis between the students’ native language and the target language will reveal where a teacher should expect the most interference.

 

o   How is evaluation accomplished?

§  Students might be asked to distinguish between words in a minimal pair, for example, or to supply an appropriate verb form in a sentence.

 

o   How does the  teacher respond to student errors?

§  Student errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE

 

o  TOTAL Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech hand action; it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity.

 

o  TPR is linked to the “trace theory” of memory in psychology, which holds that the more often or the more intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory association will be and the more likely it will be recalled.

 

Comprehension Approach in Language Teaching

  1. Comprehension abilities precede productive skills in a learning a language;
  2. The teaching of speaking should be delayed until comprehension skills are established;
  3. Skills  acquired through listening transfer to other skills;
  4. Teaching should emphasize meaning rather than form; and
  5. Teaching should minimize learner stress.

 

 

The Principles of Language Teaching in TPR

1)       Meaning In the target language can often be conveyed through actions.

2)       Memory is activated through learner’s response.

3)       Language should be presented in chunks, not just word by word.

4)       The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking.

5)       Language learning is more effective when it is fun.

6)       Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.

7)       Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking.

 

Reviewing the Principles

 

o  What are the goals of teachers who use TPR?

§  TPR was developed in order to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages.

 

o  What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

§  The teacher is  the director of all students behaviour.

§  The students are imitators of her nonverbal model.

 

o  What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

§  The first phase of a lesson is one of modeling.

§  The second phase, students demonstrate that they can understand the commands by performing them alone.

 

o   What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?

§  The teacher interacts with the whole group of students and with individual students.

§  students perform the actions together and students can learn by watching each other.

 

o   How are the feelings of the students dealt with?

§  TPR was developed to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages.

 

o   How is the language viewed? How is the culture viewed?

§  The oral modality is primary

§  Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively..

 

o   What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

§  Vocabulary and grammatical structure are emphasized over other language areas.

§  The spoken language is emphasized over written language.

 

o   What is the role of the students’ native language?

§  TPR is introduced in the student’s native language.

§  Meaning is made clear through body movements.

 

o   How is evaluation accomplished?

§  Formal evaluations can be conveyed simply by commanding individual students to perform a series of actions.

 

o   How does the  teacher respond to student errors?

§  It is expected that students will make errors when they first begin speaking.

§  Teachers should be tolerant of the students and only correct major errors.

 

COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING (CLL)

 

o  What are the goals of teachers who use CLL method?

o   Teachers who use the CLL method want their students to learn how to use the target language communicatively.

 

o  What is the role of the teacher? And what is the role of students?

§  The teacher’s initial role is primarily that of a counselor.

§  Initially the learners are very dependent upon the teacher, as the learner’s continue to study, they become increasingly independent.

 

o  What are some characteristics of the teaching/ learning process?

§  In the beginning class, students typically have a conversation using their native language.

§  Teacher helps them express what they want to say the target language translation in chunks.

§  Transcript is made of the conversation, native language equivalents are written beneath the target language words.

§  The transcription of the conversation becomes a text.

 

o  What is the nature of student – teacher interaction? What is the nature of student – student interaction?

§  CLL method is neither student-centered nor teacher-centered, but teacher-student-centered, with both being decision makers in the class.

§  Students concern from their interaction with each other as well as their interaction with the teacher (spirit of cooperation)

 

o  How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?

§  Language is for communication.

§  Culture is an integral part of language learning.

 

o  What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

§  Grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary are emphasized.

§  Speaking is emphasized through reading and writing.

 

o  What is the role of the students, native language?

§  Students’ security is initially enhanced by using their native language.

§  Literal native language equivalents are given to target language words that have been transcribed.

 

o  How is evaluation accomplished?

§  An integrative test is given, students make a paragraph or oral interview.

 

o  How does the teacher respond the student errors?

§  Teacher repeats correctly what the student has said incorrectly.

Types of Learning and Teaching Activities in CLL.

1.       Translation.

2.       Group Work.

3.       Recording.

4.       Transcription.

5.       Analysis.

6.       Reflection and Observation.

7.       Listening.

8.       Free Conversation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)

 

 

What are the goals of teachers who use Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)?

o   The goal is to enable students to communicate in the target language.

 

What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

o   The teacher facilitates communication in the classroom. In this role, on e of his major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication. During the activities he acts as an adviser, answering student' questions and monitoring their performance. He might make note of their errors to be worked on at   later time during more accuracy-based activities. At other rimes he might be n 'co-communicator' engaging in the communicative activity a long with students (Littlewood 198 1). Students are, above all, communicators. T hey are actively engaged in negotiating meaning-in trying to make them selves understood and in understanding others-even when their know ledge o f the target language is incomplete. Also, since the teacher's role is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method, students are seen as more responsible managers of their own learning.

 

What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

o   The most obvious characteristic of CLT is that almost everything that is done is done with a communicative intent. Students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as games, roleplays, and problem-solving tasks (see discussion of these in the review of techniques), Activities that are truly communicative. according to Morrow (in Johnson and Morrow 198 1), have three features in common: information gap. choice. and feed back

o   True communication is purposeful

o   Finally, we noted that activities in CLT arc often carried out by students in small groups.

 

What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction ?

o    The teacher may present some part of the lesson, such as when working with linguistic accuracy. At other times, he is the facilitator of the activities, but he docs not always himself interact with the students. Sometimes he is a co-communicator; but more often he establishes situations that prompt communication between and among the students. Students interact a great deal with one another, They do this in various configurations: pairs, tri ad s, small groups, and whole group.

 

 

 

How are the feelings of the students dealt with?

o   One of the basic assumptions of CLT is that by learning to communicate students will be more motivated to study a foreign language since they will feel they are learning to do something useful with the language. Also, teachers give students an opportunity to express their  individuality by having them share their ideas and opinions on a regular basis. Finally, student security is enhanced by the many opportunities for cooperative interact ions with their fellow students and the teacher 

 

How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?

o   Language is for communication. Linguistic competence, the knowledge  of for ms and their meanings, is just on e pan of communicative competence. Another aspect of communicative competence is knowledge  of the function s language is used for. As we have seen in this lesson, a variety of forms can be used to accomplish ,1 single function. A speaker can make a prediction by saying. for example, ' It may rain,' or 'Perhaps it will rain .' Conversely, the same form of the language can he used for a variety of functions. 'May,' for instance, ca n be used to make a predict ion or to give permission ('You ma y sir in the back').

 

 

What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

o   Language functions might be emphasized over forms , Typically, although not always, a functional syllabus is used. A variety of forms are introduced for each function. Only the simpler forms would be presented at first, but as students get more proficient in the target language, the functions are reintroduced and more complex forms a relearned.

 

 

What is the role of the students' native language?

o   Judicious use of the students' native language is permitted in CLT.  However; whenever possible, the target language should he used not  only during communicative activities, but al so for explaining the activities to the students or in assigning homework. The students  learn from these classroom management exchanges, too, and realize that the target language is a vehicle for communication, not just an object to be studied

 

 

How is evaluation accomplished?

o   A teacher evaluates not only the students' accuracy, but also their fluency.  The student who has the most control of the structures and vocabulary is not always the best communicator. A teacher can informally evaluate his students' performance in his role as an adviser or co -communicator. For more formal evaluation, a teacher is likely to use an integrative test which has a real communicative function. In order to assess students' writing skill, for instance, a teacher might ask them to write a letter to a friend

 

How does the teacher respond to student errors?

o   Errors of form are tolerated during fluency-based activities and are seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication  skills. Students can have limited linguistic knowledge and still he successful communicators. The teacher may note the errors during  fluency activities and return to them later with an accuracy-based activity.

 

 

 

(Adapted from: http://mr-bejo.com)

 

 

Please visit to our related articles:  

 

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Wed, 22 Jun 2011 @01:16


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