The Morphological analysis on the Javanese Language of Banyumasan

image

By Bejo Sutrisno, M.Pd

 

bnms

 

ABSTRACT

 

       This simple research is about the analysis of the Javanese language of Banyumasan which focuses on the morphological feature of the verbs commonly used by the people in the area of Banyumas. The research subject is a text of Javanese story titled "Kerajaan Pajajaran ” (Pajajaran Kingdom) which is taken from the internet as the main source.

       The purpose of the research is to find out what ‘verbs’ the ‘valences’ are appeared in a text. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive research which all data collected are described. This research is to describe and interpret the exact data based on the content analysis.

 

 

 

 

1   INTRODUCTION

       Dialect of the Javanese language   of Banyumasan or which Is often called Bahasa Ngapak-ngapak is a group of language of Java which is spoken in the western part of Central Java, Indonesia. Some vocabulary and accents are also used in North Banten and districts of Cirebon – Indramayu. The language dialects are much different if it is compared with other Javanese dialects. The factor is caused that the language of Banyumasan is still connected tightly with ancient Javanese Language (Kawi).

       The Javanese language of Banyumasan is known as the way of typical communication. This dialect is known as Banyumasan because it is used by the people who live in the district of Banyumasan.

       Compared with the dialects of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, dialect of   Banyumasan has many differences. The major difference is the phoneme   ‘a’/ ʌ / is consistently pronounced the same sound ‘a’/ ʌ / not ‘o’/ ɒ /. when the people of Solo eat ‘sego’ /sƏg ɒ / (rice), in the area of Banyumasan, people eat ‘sega’ /sƏg ʌ / (rice) not ‘sego’ /sƏg ɒ / . In addition, words which are ended by consonant are read fully. For example, the word ‘enak ’ by other Javanese dialects are  pronounced ‘ena ’,/en ʌ / by omitting sound /k/ but in dialect of Banyumasan, it is consistently pronounced ‘enak’ /en ʌ k/ by the sound of /k/ is pronounced clearly. That is why the Javanese language of Banyumasan is known with the language of Ngapak or Ngapak-ngapak.

       In the era of modern Javanese language, there are some significant difference between the Javanese language of Banyumasan with the standard of  Javanese language with the result that the people in Banyumasan appear the term bandhekan to represent the language style of standard Javanese language, or it is often known as bahasa wetanan (East Language).

       According to M. Koderi (one of the experts of culture and Javanese language of Banyumasan), the word bandhek morphologically is from the word gandhek meant pesuruh (servant). It means people who are assigned by the king to the area of Banyumasan. Most of assigned servants certainly used the language style of standard Java (Yogyakarta/Surakarta) which is different from the Javanese language of Banyumasan.

       Based on the background of the study above the writer is interested to analyze the morphological features of the word class in a text especially the   word class of ‘verb’. 

 

1.1   The research focus

       The focus of this simple research underlies the aspects of morphological analyzes of the verb found in a text about the story of Banyumasan.

 

1.2   The research problem

       Based on the research focus, it appears the research problem as followed:

1)     what ‘verbs’ are appeared in a text.?

2)     What are the valences of the verbs?

 

1.3    Objective of Study 

          Relating to the problem above the  objective of the study is to find what ‘verbs’ and the ‘valences’ of the verbs which are appeared in a text.

 

1.3   Significance of Study

      This research hopefully can be used for a language study and as a material for discussion for the learners of the Javanese language of Banyumasan.

 

2   THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

       Languages are not just  sets of symbols. They also often conform to a rough grammar, or system of rules, used to manipulate the symbols. While sets of symbols may be used for expression or communication because there are no clear or regular relationships its symbols to express clear and regular relationships between them. Donoghue (1975: 5) states that language is an instrument of social power. It influences beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. It may even be used, in its extreme form, to control and manipulate thought.

       Discourse analysis is more interesting in how the sentences in a text are organized, how they relate to one another. Understanding a text, there are some linguists give the definition differently. Nuttall (1996:24) states that a text is a piece of language, complete in itself and written (or spoken) for a purpose. It could consist of a single sentence or even a single word, such as a sign saying DANGER! Lyons (1996:263) states simply that a text is a sequence of sentences. Whereas, Mulyana, 2005:1) cited by Zubaidah (Jurnal  Bahtera no. 9, 2006:23) states that text is a very complete and complex language element. To write a good text, a writer should know how to organize the structure and content what they want to write.

       Naturally, there is a great deal of interest in the structure of discourse, with particular attention being paid to what makes a well-formed text. Within this structural perspective, the focus is on topics such as the explicit connections between sentences in a text that create cohesion, or on elements of textual organization that are characteristic of storytelling, for example, as distinct from opinion expressing and other text types (Yule, 1996: 84).

 

 

3   The methodology of Research

       The method used in this paper is qualitative descriptive research which all data collected are described. This research is to describe and interpret the exact data based on the content analysis.

 

3.1   The source of data

       The main data in this research is a text of story which is downloaded from the internet. The writer was interested in taking from the internet because the writer could select the validated data with the original Javanese  language of Banyumasan.

 

3.2   The technique of data analysis

       The whole data is analyzed based on content analysis then is analyzing in the features of ‘verb’ in a text which is downloaded from the internet.

       The procedures for analyzing the data were done by (1) collecting the ‘verb’ feature based on the corpus, and (2) analyzing the paradigm and valence of the ‘verb’ features which are found.

 

4   DISCUSSION

 

The Morphological analysis of the verb features.

  (Source of text : http://map-bms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamandaka )

 

Kerajaan Pajajaran (Kawali)

 

No

Conjunction/

Connector

Phrases/  clauses

1

 

sing

Gemiyen nang tanah Jawa bagian kulon ana Kerajaan

  amba tur kuat,

2

 

lan

kerajaan kiye termasuk kerajaan Hindu 

duwe pengaruh nganti daerah Jawa Tengah.

3

 

Jene kerajaan kiye yakuwe Kerajaan Pajajaran.

4

 

 

sing

Raja  pajajaran kuwe nduwe putra loro sekang permaisuri pertama,

mbarep jenenge Banyak Cotro, adine jenenge  Banyak Ngampar,

5

ningen

dong

putra mahkota kiye wis ditinggal ibune

esih cilik-cilik.

6

Bar

 

lantes

sing

ditinggal permaisurine, Raja Pajajaran kawin maning karo Dewi Kumudaningsih

nduwe putra jenenge Banyak Blabur karo putri

jenenge Dyah Ayu Ratu Pamekas.

7

Sing

 

sing

sing

dipersunting dadi permaisuri,

Dewi Kumudaningsih ngaweh persyaratan

monine: “Angger mengko nduwe putra lanang,

ngganti dadi Raja Pajajaran yakuwe putra lanange kuwe.”

8

Sebagai

sing

sedurunge

ben

Raja sing bijaksana,  Prabu Dewa Niskala kepengin nek

ngganteni dheweke dadi Raja mengko kudu diangkat

dheweke meningal

tahta kerajaan kuwe ora dadi rebutan putra-putri keturunane.

9

 

 

utawa

sing

Prabu Dewi Niskala pancen duwe akeh keturunan,

salah sijine jenenge Dyah Ayu  Ratu Pamekas

Ratna Ayu Kirana (putri bontot)

dijodohna karo Raden Baribin.

10

 

Raden Baribin kuwe kerabat istana Majapahit, dheweke ramane Raden Banyak sasro, Raden Banyak Sasro kuwe ramane Raden Joko Kahiman.

11

 

Kerasa umure wis lanjut, Raja Pajajaran duwe rencana ngangkat putra mahkota nggo calon Raja anyar mengko.

12

Lantes

Raja ngundang putra-putra pertamane.

Banyak Cotro sekang permaisuri pertama, karo Banyak Blabur sekang permaisuri kelorone kanggo ngadep sang Prabu, maksude kuwe Raja arep ngangkat salah siji putra mbarepe kuwe nggo dadi Raja Pajajaran.

13

 

Banyak Cotro mangkat sekang Kerajaan ming arah wetan, ngeliwati Gunung Tangkuban Perahu.

14

 

sing

Nang  gunung kuwe dheweke ngadep pendeta Hindu lagi mertapa nang kana.

15

 

sing

lan

 

sing

Pendeta kuwe jenenge Ki Ajar Winarong, kiye Pendeta

sekti mandraguna, nduwe ilmu Kanuragan duwur

paham nek mengko suatu saat Banyak Cotro mesthi berhasil mempersunting putri

di idam-idamana.

16

ninggen

sing

lan

asal bisa menuhi syarat-syarat

antarane: Banyak Cotro kudu bisa nglepas

ninggalna kabeh pakaian kebesaran sekang Kerajaan,

lan urip sebagai rakyat biasa.

17

 

lan

Syarat liyane: Banyak Cotro kudu ganti jeneng

  menyamar nganggo jeneng samaran Raden Kamandaka.

18

 

Raden Kamandaka terus mlaku ming arah wetan,

akhire tekan ming wilayah Kadipaten Pasir Luhur.

19

 

 

sing

Mbuh kepriwe critane akhire Raden Kamandaka bisa ketemu karo Patih Kadipaten Pasir Luhur

jenenge Patih Reksonoto.

20

 

Patih kiye Mandan seneng karo perilaku Raden Kamandaka, kebeneran maning, dheweke ora nduwe putra. 

21

 

 

 

sing

lan

Akhire  Raden Kamandaka diangkat dadi anak.

Patih Reksonoto seneng pisan tur bangga,

siki dheweke wis nduwe anak angkat

gagah perkasa, ganteng

  nduwe   perilaku apik.

22

 

Raden Kamandaka disayang banget karo ayah angkate.

23

 

sing

Sementara kuwe nang Istana Kadipaten Psir Luhur,

  merentah sebagai Adipati yakuwe Adipati Kandandoho.

24

 

lan

wis

sing

Dheweke  nduwe putri-putri sing ayu-ayu

  wis kawin kecuali

bontot,

jenenge Dewi Ciptoroso.

25

 

Ndilalah putri bontot  Adipati kiye nduwe rupa

mirip banget karo ibune Raden Kmandaka.

26

 

Sebagai putra Patih Reksonoto,

Raden Kamandaka jelas wis mlebu nang lingkaran Istana

27

 

Kadipaten Pasir Luhur uga wis bola-bali ndeleng Dewi Ciptoroso.

28

 

sing

Raden Kamandaka yakin pisan nek Dewi Ciptoroso kuwe putri

diidam-idamna.

29

 

 

sing

Raden Kamandaka terus mlayu ming arah wetan

ngantek akhire tekan ming ujung dalan

buntu, enggon kuwe dijenengi desa Buntu.

30

 

 

 

Bar

Raden Kamandaka terus mlebu alas

ngantek akhire nemoni Goa,

dheweke terus mlebu nang goa kuwe.

  nempuh perjalanan lumangyan adoh,

Raden Kamandaka leren nang jero goa.

31

 

Sementara kuwe Silihwarni karo prajurite terus ngejar debantu anjing pelacake,

ngantek akjhire anjing kuwe mandeg nang ngarep goa.

32

 

Silihwarni yakin banget nek buruane mesthi ana nang jero goa, karo ngorong-ngorong ,

33

 

 

 

 

sing

Silihwarni nantang Raden Kamandaka.

“Hei Kamandaka, angger kowe ngerasa jago metu ngeneh!,

arep tarung pirang jurus bae tek ladeni ,

apa perlu nyong

mlebu heh!” jere Silihwarni.

34

 

 

dong

Sekang mulut goa metu suara Mandan medeni, “Sih!!! nyong kiye putra mahkota sejati Pajajaran, ora bakalan wedhi ora!”

  nyebut “sejati Pajajaran”

Raden Kamandaka ngetokna sisa-sisa tenaga dalame,

kuwe marakna suarane menggema nang endi-endi

35

 

sing

uga

Prajurit-prajurit Kadipaten

  ngawasi sekang adoh

  krungu ning suarane wis ora utuh.

36

Apamaning

merga

sing

kabeh prajurit kuwe padha nutup kuping

ora kuat nahan serangan tenaga dalam

metu sekang suara kuwe,

37

 

suara Raden Kamandaka kuwe bener-bener marakna budeg.

38

Sing

krungu nang prajurit-prajurit kuwe mung suara gema thok, “jati jajar … jati jajar… jati jajar….” Kaya kuwe,

mulane Goa kuwe dijenengi Goa Jatijajar.

39

 

Krungu Raden Kamandaka nyebut-nyebut jeneng Kerajaan Pajajaran.

40

 

Silihwarni kaget, dheweke langsung takon “Apa ko sekang Pajajaran juga?”.

41

 

Raden Kamandaka njawab “Iya, lha rika sapa?”

42

 

Silihwarni ora langsung njawab ,

dheweke mbatin “kiye mesthi kakangku”

43

Lantes

Silihwarni lumpat mlebu goa.

44

 

Nang jero goa Silihwarni mbukak rahasia,

“Inyong Banyak Ngampar, apa rika Banyak Cotro?”

45

 

Akhire putra-putra Prabu Dewa Niskala kuwe ketemu , suasane haru banget.

46

 

sing

 

 

 

terus

Nang jaba prajurit-prajurit Kadipaten

wis padha Mandan budeg ora krungu apa-apa,

kabeh mung ngenteni nganti

akhire Silihwarni lumpat metu sekang goa

langsung nyamber salah siji sisa anjing pelacake,

lumpat maning mlebu goa.

47

 

 

sing

sementara

Mandan suwe Silihwarni nang jero goa,

akhire dheweke metu nggawa bungkusan

isine getih karo hati,

anjing pelacake ora digawa metu.

48

 

sing

dong

Getih karo hati kuwe ialah bukti

dijaluk Adipati Pasir Luhur

aweh prentah ming Silihwarni kon nggolet Raden Kamandaka.

49

 

 

sementara

Silihwarni langsung aweh prentah ming pasukane kon bali ming Kadipaten,

prajurit-prajurite padha mbatin “Silihwarni kuwe sekti pisan.

50

 

sing

malah

Kamandaka

sektine kaya kuwe be bisa dikalahna,

hatine dijukut getieh diperes , asu!”

 

 


 

5   PARADIGM

      Verbs in the Javanese language of Banyumasan can be formed from free morpheme and bound morpheme. Bound morpheme can be formed from some affixes, such as; prefix, suffix, infix and sirkumfix. (combination between prefix and suffix). The following data of those affixes are discussed below based on the data found.

 

1)   ng~ : can be used to form an active sentence meaning. For instance:  ngaweh (to give), nggolet (to search for). for examples:

ü Dewi Kumudaningsih ngaweh persyaratan … [no. 7]

ü (Dewi Kumudaningsih gave the requirements ….) 

ü Silihwarni kon nggolet Raden Kamandaka . [no. 48]

ü (Silihwarni was supposed to search for Raden Kamandaka)

 

2)     n~ : is not productive when it attaches to the verb. With or without this affix, it does not change the meaning. Such as; nduwe (duwe ) ‘to have’. It can be compared between two sentences:

ü Angger mengko nduwe putra lanang , …   [no. 7]

ü (if we have a son, …)

ü Angger mengko duwe putra lanang , …..  

ü (if we have a son, …)

       ‘n’ is also an affixation when ‘n’ replaces ‘t’ to form a verb. For example: tempuh – nempuh (to reach),   tahan – nahan (to hold). For examples:

ü Bar nempuh perjalanan lumangyan adoh, ….   [no. 30]

ü (after reaching the long journey, …..)

ü …… merga ora kuat nahan serangan tenaga dalam …… [no. 36]

ü (because he couldn’t stand hold the inner energy ….. )

 

3)    di~ : is used to form passive voice from other words, such as diangkat (to be adopted), dijaluk (to be asked). For examples

ü Akhire Raden Kamandaka diangkat dadi anak . [no. 21]

ü (Finally, Raden Kamandaka was adopted to be a child).

ü Getih karo hati koe ialah sing dijaluk   Adipati Pasir Luhung   ……[no. 48]

ü (The blood and heart which were asked by Adipati Pasir Luhung)

 

4)   mer~ : forms the verb from the base verb ‘tapa’ (meditate) – mertapa (to meditate) which means doing an activity to get something.. For example:

ü nang gunung kuwe dheweke (Raden Kamandaka) ngadep pendeta Hindu sing lagi mertapa nang kana . [no. 14]

ü (in the mountain, he faced the Hindu priest who was meditating there).

 

5)   ny~ : is a prefix which is replaced  ‘s’ in a word to form a verb. For instance; samber (grabbing) – nyamber (to grab). For example:

ü Silihwarni lumpat metu sekang goa langsung nyamber salah siji sisa anjing pelacake . [no. 48]

ü (Silihwarni jumped out from the cave and grabbed straight to his one of the rest searching dogs.

 

6)   ke~ : this prefix forms verb to verb which has the meaning of something done not in purpose.   For instance, temu – ketemu (to meet), for example:

ü akhire Raden Kamandaka bisa ketemu karo Patih Kadipaten Pasir Luhur. No. 19]

ü (… finally Raden Kamandaka could meet with Patih Kdipaten Pasir Luhur).

 

7)   ~an : this affix can form or change the verb becomes noun. For instance: rebutan (struggling), serangan (attack), bungkusan (package). For examples:

ü … ben tahta kerajaan kuwe ora dadi rebutan putra-putri keturunane . [no. 8]

ü (… in order that the king throne didn’t become the struggling his children).

ü kabeh prajurit kuwe padha nutup kuping merga ora kuat nahan serangan tenaga dalam sing metu sekang suara kuwe, … [no. 36]

ü (all her soldiers were closing their eyes because they couldn’t hold on the attack of his inner power).

ü … akhire dheweke metu nggawa bungkusan sing isine getih karo hati,… [no. 47]

ü (… finally he got out of the cave bought the package of heart and blood, …).

 

6   VALENCE:

       Verbs are words or groups of words to denote actions performed by nouns or pronouns, or the state of being of a noun or pronoun.[1]

1)   Most verbs are formed from the  base verbs themselves. For instances; ngaweh (to give), nggolet (to search for), nduwe, diangkat (to be adopted), dijaluk (to be asked), temu – ketemu (to meet), etc.

 

2)   Verbs can occur without any bound morpheme; duwe (to have), dadi (to become), mangkat (to leave), ganti (to change), mlebu (to enter), metu (to get out), bali (to go home), etc.

 

3)   Not only in Bahasa Indonesia, the affix ‘di’ is also used to form passive voice in the language of Banyumasan; diangkat (to be promoted), dijaluk (to be asked), dijukut (to be taken), diperes (to be squeezed), etc.

 

4)   Verbs in the language of Banyumasan can either be transitive or intransitive. For transitive, example: Angger mengko nduwe putra lanang , …  (if we have a son, …), and for intransitive, example: Raden Kamandaka terus mlaku ming arah wetan (Then Raden Kamandaka walked to the east).

 

5)   Some other word classes can be formed from a verb. For example: verb to noun: temu ‘meet’    → pertemuan ‘meeting’

     

 

7   CONCLUSION

        Based on the description above, there appears  some basic characteristic of verbs in the Javanese language of Banyumasan. First, like in other verbs in some languages, verbs in the Javanese language of Banyumasan can stand alone without adding affix, either prefix or suffix.  Second, the meaning of verbs depends on the affixes which are attached to the base verbs, whether the verbs will have meanings of active voice or passive voice. Third, different from English language if verbs appear as a subject phrase the verb should be added ‘ing’ form or gerund, but in the Javanese language of Banyumasan the verb can appear in the base verb: Krungu Raden Kamandaka nyebut-nyebut jeneng Kerajaan Pajajaran. (no 39).

 

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

H. Douglas Brown. Teaching by Principles , Sans Francisco State University. 2001

http://map-bms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamandaka

http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian

 

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialek_Banyumas

 

Journal : BAHTERA ., No. 9, Tahun ke – 5, Januari 2006. UNJ.

Lyons, John. 1996. Linguistic Semantics . Cambridge University Press.

Nuttal, Christian. 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Heinemann.

Rusdi, et.al. 1985. Kosa Kata Bahasa Jawa .  Pusat Bahasa, JAKARTA.

Yule, Goerge. 1996. PRAGMATICS . Oxford University Press.

W.A Gatherer. 1985. The Student’s Handbook of Modern English , Penerbit Gramedia.

 

 



[1] W.A Gatherer, The Student’s Handbook of Modern English , Penerbit Gramedia. 1985, hlm.122

 


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Please visit to our related articles:  

 

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Effective Public Speaking Skills


Wed, 22 Jun 2011 @01:35


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